Multiplex GAM : genome-wide identification of chromatin contacts yields insights not captured by Hi-C

Robert A. Beagrie, Christoph J. Thieme et al., bioRxiv preprint, 2020. doi:                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                


Robert A. Beagrie*, Christoph J. Thieme*, Carlo Annunziatella, Catherine Baugher, Yingnan Zhang, Markus Schueler, Dorothee CA Kramer, Andrea M. Chiariello, Simona Bianco, Alexander Kukalev, Yichao Li, Rieke Kempfer, Antonio Scialdone, Lonnie R. Welch, Mario Nicodemi, Ana Pombo.


“Technologies for measuring 3D genome topology are increasingly important for studying mechanisms of gene regulation, for genome assembly and for mapping of genome rearrangements. Hi-C and other ligation-based methods have become routine but have specific biases. Here, we develop multiplex-GAM, a faster and more affordable version of Genome Architecture Mapping (GAM), a ligation-free technique to map chromatin contacts genome wide. We perform a detailed comparison of contacts obtained by multiplex-GAM and Hi-C using mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells. We find that both methods detect similar topologically associating domains (TADs). However, when examining the strongest contacts detected by either method, we find that only one third of these are shared. The strongest contacts specifically found in GAM often involve “active” regions, including many transcribed genes and super-enhancers, whereas in Hi-C they more often contain “inactive” regions. Our work shows that active genomic regions are involved in extensive complex contacts that currently go under-estimated in genome-wide ligation-based approaches, and highlights the need for orthogonal advances in genome-wide contact mapping technologies.”